Ngô Quốc Anh

March 13, 2015

Comparing topologies of normed spaces: The equivalency of norms and the convergence of sequences

Filed under: Uncategorized — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 23:01

The aim of this note is to derive some connections between topologies of normed spaces in terms of the equivalency of norms and the convergence of sequences.

Topological space and its topology: First, we start with a topological space, call X. Its topology, say \mathcal T is the collection of subsets of X which satisfies certain conditions. In the literature, each member of the collection \mathcal T is called an open set.

Regarding to topologies we have the following basic facts:

  • Given two topologies \mathcal T_1 and \mathcal T_2 on X, we say that \mathcal T_1 is stronger (or finer or richer) than \mathcal T_2 if \mathcal T_2 \subset \mathcal T_1.
  • Given a sequence (x_n)_n in X, we say that x_n converges to x in topology \mathcal T of X if for any neighborhood V of x, there exists some large number N such that x_n \in V for all n \geqslant N. (Here by the neighborhood V of x we mean that there exists an open set O of X, i.e. O is a member of the topology \mathcal T, such that x \in O \subset V.)

The key ingredient to compare topologies is to make use of the identity map. In the following part, we state a result which shall be used frequently in this note.

Topologies under the identity map: Given two topologies \mathcal T_1 and \mathcal T_2 on a topological space X, we are interested in comparing \mathcal T_1 and \mathcal T_2 in terms of the identity map \rm id : (X, \mathcal T_1) \to (X, \mathcal T_2).

Lemma 1. The identity map \rm id : (X, \mathcal T_1) \to (X, \mathcal T_2) is continuous if and only if \mathcal T_1 is stronger than \mathcal T_2.


The proof is relatively easy. Indeed, if the map \rm id is continuous, then the preimage of any O_2 \in \mathcal T_2 is also a member of \mathcal T_1 which immediately implies that \mathcal T_1 includes \mathcal T_2.

Having Lemma 1 in hand, we now try to compare topologies using norms.



February 25, 2015

Continuous functions on subsets can be extended to the whole space: The Kirzbraun-Pucci theorem

Filed under: Uncategorized — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 1:22

Let f be a continuous function defined on a set E \subset \mathbb R^N with values in \mathbb R and with modulus of continuity

\displaystyle \omega_f (s) := \sup_{|x-y|\leqslant s,x,y\in E} |f(x) - f(y)| \quad s>0.

Obviously, the function s \mapsto \omega_f(s) is nonnegative and nondecreasing in [0,+\infty).

Our first assumption is that \omega_f is bounded from above in [0, \infty) by some increasing, affine function; that is to say there exists some a,b \in \mathbb R^+ such that

\displaystyle \omega_f (s) \leqslant a s +b \quad \forall s \geqslant 0.

Associated with \omega_f having the above first assumption is the concave modulus of continuity of f, i.e. some smallest concave function c_f lies above \omega_f. Such the function c_f can be easily constructed using the following

\displaystyle c_f (s) = \inf_\ell \{\ell(s) : \ell \text{ is affine and } \ell \geqslant \omega_f \text{ in } [0,+\infty)\}.

As can be easily seen, once \omega_f can be bounded from above by some affine function, the concave modulus of continuity of f exists and is well-defined.

By definition and the monotonicity of \omega_f, we obtain

\displaystyle |f(x)-f(y)| \leqslant \omega_f (|x-y|) \leqslant c_f (|x-y|).

In this note, we prove the following extension theorem.

Theorem (Kirzbraun-Pucci). Let f be a real-valued, uniformly continuous function on a set E \subset \mathbb R^N with modulus of continuity \omega_f satisfying the first assumption. There exists a continuous function \widetilde f defined on \mathbb R^N that coincides with f on E. Moreover, f and \widetilde f have the same concave modulus of continuity c_f and

\displaystyle \sup_{\mathbb R^N} \widetilde f = \sup_E f, \quad \inf_{\mathbb R^N} \widetilde f = \inf_E f.


February 22, 2015

The conditions (NN), (P), (NN+) and (P+) associated to the Paneitz operator for 3-manifolds

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 18:54

Of recent interest is the prescribed Q-curvature on closed Riemannian manifolds since it involves high-order differential operators.

In a previous post, I have talked about prescribed Q-curvature on 4-manifolds. Recall that for 4-manifolds, this question is equivalent to finding a conformal metric \widetilde g =e^{2u}g for which the Q-curvature of \widetilde g equals the prescribed function \widetilde Q? That is to solving

\displaystyle P_gu+2Q_g=2\widetilde Q e^{4u},

where for any g, the so-called Paneitz operator P_g acts on a smooth function u on M via

\displaystyle {P_g}(u) = \Delta _g^2u - {\rm div}\left( {\frac{2}{3}{R_g} - 2{\rm Ric}_g} \right)du

which plays a similar role as the Laplace operator in dimension two and the Q-curvature of \widetilde g is given as follows

\displaystyle Q_g=-\frac{1}{12}(\Delta\text{Scal}_g -\text{Scal}_g^2 +3|{\rm Ric}_g|^2).

Sometimes, if we denote by \delta the negative divergence, i.e. \delta = - {\rm div}, we obtain the following formula

\displaystyle {P_g}(u) = \Delta _g^2u + \delta \left( {\frac{2}{3}{R_g} - 2{\rm Ric}_g} \right)du.

Generically, for n-manifolds, we obtain

\displaystyle Q_g=-\frac{1}{2(n-1)} \Big(\Delta\text{Scal}_g - \frac{n^3-4n^2+16n-16}{4(n-1)(n-2)^2} \text{Scal}_g^2+\frac{4(n-1)}{(n-2)^2} |{\rm Ric}_g|^2 \Big)


\displaystyle {P_g}(u) = \Delta _g^2u + {\rm div}\left( { a_n {R_g} + b_n {\rm Ric}_g} \right)du + \frac{n-4}{2} Q_g u,

where a_n = -((n-2)^2+4)/2(n-1)(n-2) and b_n =4/(n-2).


January 24, 2015

Reversed Gronwall-Bellman’s inequality

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 23:01

In mathematics, Gronwall’s inequality (also called Grönwall’s lemma, Gronwall’s lemma or Gronwall–Bellman inequality) allows one to bound a function that is known to satisfy a certain differential or integral inequality by the solution of the corresponding differential or integral equation. The differential form was proven by Grönwall in 1919. The integral form was proven by Richard Bellman in 1943. A nonlinear generalization of the Gronwall–Bellman inequality is known as Bihari’s inequality.

First, we consider the Gronwall inequality.

Type 1. Bounds by integrals based on lower bound a.

Let \beta and u be real-valued continuous functions defined on [a,b]. If u is differentiable in (a,b) and satisfies the differential inequality

\displaystyle u'(t) \leqslant \beta(t) u(t),

then u is bounded by the solution of the corresponding differential equation y'(t) = \beta (t)y(t), that is to say

\displaystyle \boxed{u(t) \leqslant u(a) \exp\biggl(\int_a^t \beta(s) ds\biggr)}

for all t \in [a,b].


January 7, 2015

The failure of compact Rellich-Kondrachov embedding: Unbounded domains and critical exponents

Filed under: Uncategorized — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 19:49

In a very old entry, I talked about an extension of Rellich-Kondrachov theorem for embeddings between Sobolev spaces. For the sake of convenience, here is the statement of this extension:

Theorem (Extension of Rellich-Kondrachov for bounded domains). Let \Omega \subset \mathbb R^n be an open, bounded Lipschitz domain, and let  1 \leqslant p \leqslant mn. Set

\displaystyle p^\star := \frac{np}{n - mp}.

Then we have

\displaystyle W^{j+m, p} (\Omega) \hookrightarrow W^{j, q} (\Omega) for  1 \leqslant q \leqslant p^\star


\displaystyle W^{j+m, p} (\Omega) \hookrightarrow \hookrightarrow W^{j,q} (\Omega) for  1 \leqslant q < p^\star.

Clearly, when q=p^\star=\frac{np}{n - mp}, the above embedding is not compact, in general. In this context, we call the failure of compact Rellich-Kondrachov embedding due to critical exponents.

There is an other example of the failure of compact Rellich-Kondrachov embedding which is basically due to the unbounded domains. In this entry, we address counter-examples for these two lacks of compactness.


December 31, 2014

Conformal change of the Laplace-Beltrami operator

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 23:55

Happy New Year 2015!

In the last entry in 2014, I talk about conformal change of the Laplace-Beltrami operator. Given (M,g) a Riemannian manifold of dimension n \geqslant 2. We denote \widetilde g = e^{2\varphi} g a conformal metric of g where the function \varphi is smooth.

Recall the following formula for the Laplace-Beltrami operator \Delta_g calculated with respect to the metric g:

\displaystyle \Delta_g = \frac{1}{\sqrt{|\det g|}} \frac{\partial}{\partial x_j} \Big( \sqrt{|\det g|} g^{ij} \frac{\partial}{\partial x^i} \Big).

where \det g is the determinant of g. Then, it is natural to consider the relation between \Delta_g and \Delta_{\widetilde g} in terms of \varphi. Recall that by \widetilde g = e^{2\varphi} g we mean, in local coordinates, the following

\displaystyle \widetilde g_{ij} = e^{2\varphi} g_{ij},

hence by taking the inverse, we obtain

\displaystyle \widetilde g^{ij} = e^{-2\varphi} g^{ij}.


\displaystyle\det {\widetilde g} = e^{2n \varphi}\det g,


\displaystyle\sqrt{| \det {\widetilde g} |} = e^{n \varphi} \sqrt{ |\det g| }.


December 21, 2014

Conformal Changes of the Green function for the conformal Laplacian

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 11:00

Long time ago, I talked about conformal changes for various geometric quantities on a given Riemannian manifold (M,g) of dimension n, see this post.

Frequently used in conformal geometry in general, or when solving the prescribed scalar curvature equation in particular, is the conformal Laplacian, defined as follows

\displaystyle L_g(u) = - \frac{n-1}{4(n-2)}\Delta_g u + \text{Scal}_g u

where \text{Scal}_g is the scalar curvature of the metric g. The operator L_g is conformal in the sense that any change of metric \widehat g = \varphi ^\frac{4}{n-2}g would give the following magic identity

\displaystyle L_{\widehat g} (u) =\varphi^{-\frac{n+2}{n-2}} L_g (\varphi u).

Associated to the conformal Laplacian operator L_g is the Green function, if exists, \mathbb G_{L,g}. Mathematically, the Green function \mathbb G_{L,g} is defined to be a continuous function

\mathbb G_{L,g} : M \times M \backslash \{(x,x) : x \in M\} \to \mathbb R

such that for any x\in M, \mathbb G_{L,g} (x, \cdot) \in L^1(M) and for any u \in C^2(M) and any x \in M, we have the following representation

\displaystyle u(x) = \int_M \mathbb G_{L,g}(x,y) L_g(u)(y) dv_g (y).


December 4, 2014

Equations satisfied by standard bubbles and their derivatives in the Euclidean space

Filed under: Uncategorized — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 21:37

This note is purely involved calculation. In \mathbb R^n, let denote by V_{(x,\varepsilon)} (y) the standard bubbles given by

\displaystyle V_{(x,\varepsilon)} (y)= \left( \frac{\varepsilon}{\varepsilon^2+|y-x|^2}\right)^\frac{n-2}{2}.

I am trying to derive some PDE for which the bubbles V_{(x,\varepsilon)} solves.

1. First, we try to calculate \Delta V_{(x,\varepsilon)}. Clearly,

\begin{array}{lcl} {\partial _{{y_i}}}{V_{(x,\varepsilon )}}(y) &=& \displaystyle \frac{{n - 2}}{2}{\left( {\frac{\varepsilon }{{{\varepsilon ^2} + |y - x{|^2}}}} \right)^{ - 1}}{V_{(x,\varepsilon )}}(y){\partial _{{y_i}}}\left( {\frac{\varepsilon }{{{\varepsilon ^2} + |y - x{|^2}}}} \right) \hfill \\ &=& \displaystyle -\frac{{n - 2}}{2}{\left( {\frac{\varepsilon }{{{\varepsilon ^2} + |y - x{|^2}}}} \right)^{ - 1}}{V_{(x,\varepsilon )}}(y)\frac{{2\varepsilon ({y_i} - {x_i})}}{{{{({\varepsilon ^2} + |y - x{|^2})}^2}}} \hfill \\ &=& \displaystyle -(n - 2)\frac{{{y_i} - {x_i}}}{{{\varepsilon ^2} + |y - x{|^2}}}{V_{(x,\varepsilon )}}(y).\end{array}

Taking derivative again gives

\begin{array}{lcl} \partial _{{y_i}{y_i}}^2{V_{(x,\varepsilon )}}(y) &=& \displaystyle -(n - 2) {\partial _{{y_i}}}\left( {\frac{{{y_i} - {x_i}}}{{{\varepsilon ^2} + |y - x{|^2}}}{V_{(x,\varepsilon )}}(y)} \right) \hfill \\ &=& \displaystyle -(n - 2) {V_{(x,\varepsilon )}}(y){\partial _{{y_i}}}\left( {\frac{{{y_i} - {x_i}}}{{{\varepsilon ^2} + |y - x{|^2}}}} \right) - (n - 2)\frac{{{y_i} - {x_i}}}{{{\varepsilon ^2} + |y - x{|^2}}}{\partial _{{y_i}}}{V_{(x,\varepsilon )}}(y) \hfill \\ &=& \displaystyle -(n - 2) {I_1} - (n - 2) {I_2}.\end{array}


November 4, 2014

Baire properties for open subspaces

Filed under: Giải Tích 1 — Tags: — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 7:53

This post deals with a classical problem in functional analysis: The Baire space. I am not going to reproduce what we can learn and read from wikipedia; however, to make the post self-contained, following is what the Baire space is.

Loosely speaking, a Baire space X is a topological space in which any one of the following three equivalent conditions is satisfied:

  1. Whenever the union of countably many closed subsets of X has an interior point, then one of the closed subsets must have an interior point, i.e. if

    \displaystyle \text{int}\Big(\bigcup_{n \geqslant 1} C_n \Big) \ne \emptyset,

    then \text{int}(C_n) \ne \emptyset for some n. Here by C we mean a closed subset in X.

  2. The union of every countable collection of closed sets with empty interior has empty interior, that is to say, i.e if \text{int}(C_n) = \emptyset for all n, then

    \displaystyle \text{int}\Big(\bigcup_{n \geqslant 1} C_n \Big) =\emptyset.

  3. Every intersection of countably many dense open sets is dense, i.e.

    \displaystyle \overline{\bigcap_{n \geqslant 1} O_n} = X

    provided \overline{O_n}= X for every n. Here by O we mean an open subset in X.

What I am going to do is to show that every open subset of a Baire space is itself a Baire space, of course, under the subspace topology inherited from X. Hence, at the very beginning, we assume throughout this topic that X is a Baire space; hence admits all three equivalent conditions above.


October 12, 2014

Construction of non-radial solutions for a Lichnerowicz type equation in the whole space

Filed under: Uncategorized — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 1:23

Given q \in (0,1) and N \geqslant 2, in this note, we are interested in construction of non-radial solutions for the following Lichnerowicz type equation

\displaystyle -\Delta u = -u^q + u^{-q-2}

in the whole space \mathbb R^N.

In the previous post, we showed how to construct non-radial solutions of the following equation

\displaystyle -\Delta u = -u^q.

Clearly, this equation comes from the Lichnerowicz type equation by writing off the term with a negative exponent.

To start our construction and for simplicity, let us denote by f the following

\displaystyle f(t) = t^q - t^{-q-2},

then a simple calculation shows f'(t)=qt^{q-1} + (q+2)t^{-q-3} and f''(t)=q(q-1)t^{q-2} - (q+2)(q+3)t^{-q-4}. Hence, the function f is monotone increasing in [0,+\infty). Moreover, there exists a real number a>0 sufficiently large such that f>0 and f is concave in [a,+\infty). In addition, we can choose the number a even large in such a way that

\displaystyle \frac 1C f''(t) \leqslant f''(2t) \leqslant C f''(t)

for some constant C>0.


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