Ngô Quốc Anh

April 25, 2013

The Cauchy formula for repeated integration

Filed under: Các Bài Tập Nhỏ, Giải Tích 2 — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 23:41

The Cauchy formula for repeated integration, named after Augustin Louis Cauchy, allows one to compress n antidifferentiations of a function into a single integral.

Let f be a continuous function on the real line. Then the n-th repeated integral of f based at a,

\displaystyle f^{(-n)}(x) = \int_a^x \int_a^{\sigma_1} \cdots \int_a^{\sigma_{n-1}} f(\sigma_{n}) \, \mathrm{d}\sigma_{n} \cdots \, \mathrm{d}\sigma_2 \, \mathrm{d}\sigma_1,

is given by single integration

\displaystyle f^{(-n)}(x) = \frac{1}{(n-1)!} \int_a^x\left(x-t\right)^{n-1} f(t)\,\mathrm{d}t.

A proof is given by induction. Since f is continuous, the base case follows from the Fundamental theorem of calculus

\displaystyle\frac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}x} f^{(-1)}(x) = \frac{\mathrm{d}}{\mathrm{d}x}\int_a^x f(t)\,\mathrm{d}t = f(x);


\displaystyle f^{(-1)}(a) = \int_a^a f(t)\,\mathrm{d}t = 0.


April 18, 2013

A lower bound for solutions involving distance functions

Filed under: PDEs — Tags: — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 21:14

In this note, we discuss an useful lemma and its beautiful proof given by Brezis and Cabré in a paper published in Boll. Unione Mat. Ital. Sez. B Artic. Ric. Mat. in 1998. The full article can be freely downloaded from here. Before saying anything further, let us state the lemma.

Lemma 3.2. Suppose that h \geq 0 belongs to L^\infty (\Omega). Let v be the solution of

\left\{\begin{array}{rcl} - \Delta v &=& h \quad \text{ in }\Omega , \hfill \\ v &=& 0 \quad \text{ on }\partial \Omega . \hfill \\ \end{array}\right.


\displaystyle\frac{{v(x)}}{{\text{dist}(x,\partial \Omega )}} \geqslant c\int_\Omega {h\text{dist}(x,\partial \Omega )} ,\qquad\forall x \in \Omega,

where c>0 is a constant depending only on \Omega.

This type of estimate frequently uses in the literature. We now show the proof of the lemma.


April 1, 2013

A proof of the uniqueness of solutions of the Lichnerowicz equations in the compact case

Filed under: PDEs — Tags: — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 4:38

In this small note, we aim to derive some uniqueness property of solutions of the following PDE

\displaystyle -a\Delta_g u +\text{Scal}_g u =|\sigma|_g^2 u ^{-2\kappa-3}-b\tau^2 u^{2\kappa+1}

on a compact manifold (M,g) where \kappa=\frac{2}{n-2}, a=2\kappa+4, and b=\frac{n-1}{n}.

We assume that \phi_1 and \phi_2 are solutions of the above PDE. Setting \phi=\frac{\phi_2}{\phi_1}. We wish to prove that \phi=1.

Let us consider the following trick basically due to David Maxwell, see this paper. Let \widetilde g= \phi_1^{2\kappa}g. Then the well-known formula for the Laplace-Beltrami operator \Delta_g, which is

\displaystyle {\Delta _g}u = \frac{1}{{\sqrt {\det g} }}{\partial _i}(\sqrt {\det g} {g^{ij}}{\partial _j}u)

helps us to write

\displaystyle {\Delta _{\widetilde g}}u = \phi _1^{ - 2\kappa } \Big({\Delta _g}u + \frac{2}{{{\phi _1}}}{\nabla _g}{\phi _1}{\nabla _g}u \Big).


\displaystyle {\Delta _g}\phi = \phi _1^{2\kappa }{\Delta _{\widetilde g}}\phi - \frac{2}{{{\phi _1}}}{\nabla _g}{\phi _1}{\nabla _g}\phi .

We now calculate - a{\Delta _g}{\phi _2} + {R_g}{\phi _2} as follows.


Create a free website or blog at