Ngô Quốc Anh

April 20, 2016

Stereographic projection, 6

Filed under: PDEs, Riemannian geometry — Tags: — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 1:08

I want to propose an alternative way to calculate the Jacobian of the stereographic projection \mathcal S. In Cartesian coordinates  \xi=(\xi_1, \xi_2,...,\xi_{n+1}) on the sphere \mathbb S^n and x=(x_1,x_2,...,x_n) on the plane, the projection and its inverse are given by the formulas

\displaystyle\xi _i = \begin{cases} \dfrac{{2{x_i}}}{{1 + {{\left| x \right|}^2}}},&1 \leqslant i \leqslant n, \hfill \\ \dfrac{{{{\left| x \right|}^2} - 1}}{{1 + {{\left| x \right|}^2}}},&i = n + 1. \hfill \\ \end{cases}


\displaystyle {x_i} = \frac{{{\xi _i}}}{{1 - {\xi _{n + 1}}}}, \quad 1 \leqslant i \leqslant n.

It is well-known that the Jacobian of the stereographic projection \mathcal S: \xi \mapsto x is

\displaystyle \frac{\partial \xi}{\partial x} = {\left( {\frac{2}{{1 + {{\left| x \right|}^2}}}} \right)^n}.

The way to calculate its Jacobian is to compare the ratio of volumes. First pick two arbitrary points x, y \in \mathbb R^n and denote \xi = \mathcal S(x) and \eta = \mathcal S(y).

The Euclidean distance between \xi and \eta is

\displaystyle |\xi -\eta|^2 = \sum_{i=1}^{n+1} |\xi_i - \eta_i|^2 =\sum_{i=1}^n |\xi_i - \eta_i|^2+|\xi_{n+1} - \eta_{n+1}|^2.


August 9, 2015

The third fundamental lemma in the method of moving spheres

Filed under: Uncategorized — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 4:03

In this post, we proved the following result (appeared in a paper by Y.Y. Li published in J. Eur. Math. Soc. (2004))

Lemma 1. For n \geqslant 1 and \nu \in \mathbb R, let f be a function defined on \mathbb R^n and valued in [-\infty, +\infty] satisfying

\displaystyle {\left( {\frac{\lambda }{{|y - x|}}} \right)^\nu }f\left( {x + {\lambda ^2}\frac{{y - x}}{{|y - x{|^2}}}} \right) \leqslant f(y), \quad \forall |y - x| > \lambda > 0.

Then f is constant or \pm \infty.

Later, we considered the equality case in this post and proved the following result:

Lemma 2. Let n\geqslant 1, \nu \in \mathbb R and f \in C^0(\mathbb R^n). Suppose that for every x \in \mathbb R^n there exists \lambda(x)>0 such that

\displaystyle {\left( {\frac{\lambda(x) }{{|y - x|}}} \right)^\nu }f\left( {x + {\lambda(x) ^2}\frac{{y - x}}{{|y - x{|^2}}}} \right) =f(y), \quad \forall |y - x| > 0.

Then for some a \geqslant 0, d>0 and \overline x \in \mathbb R^n

\displaystyle f(x) = \pm a{\left( {\frac{1}{{d + {{\left| {x - \overline x } \right|}^2}}}} \right)^{\frac{\nu }{2}}}.

In this post, we consider the third result which can be stated as follows:


April 28, 2015

On the simplicity of the first eigenvalue of elliptic systems with locally integrable weight

Filed under: Uncategorized — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 0:52

Of interest in this note is the simplicity of the first eigenvalue of the following problem

\begin{array}{rcl}-\text{div}(h_1 |\nabla u|^{p-2}\nabla u) &=& \lambda |u|^{\alpha-1} |v|^{\beta-1}v \quad \text{ in } \Omega\\-\text{div}(h_2 |\nabla v|^{q-2}\nabla v) &=& \lambda |u|^{\alpha-1} |v|^{\beta-1}u \quad \text{ in } \Omega\\u &=&0 \quad \text{ on } \partial\Omega\\v &=&0 \quad \text{ on } \partial\Omega\end{array}

where 1 \leqslant h_1, h_2 \in L_{\rm loc}^1 (\Omega) and \alpha, \beta>0 satisfy

\displaystyle \frac \alpha p + \frac \beta q = 1

with p,q >1. A simple variational argument shows that \lambda exists and can be characterized by

\lambda = \inf_{\Lambda} J(u,v)


\displaystyle J(u,v)=\frac \alpha p \int_\Omega h_1 |\nabla u|^p dx + \frac \beta q \int_\Omega h_2 |\nabla v|^q dx


\Lambda = \{(u,v) \in W_0^{1,p} (\Omega) \times W_0^{1,q} (\Omega) : \Lambda (u,v) = 1\}


\displaystyle \Lambda (u,v)= \int_\Omega |u|^{\alpha-1}|v|^{\beta-1} uv dx.


April 10, 2015

Existence of antiderivative of discontinuous functions

Filed under: Uncategorized — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 0:17

It is well-known that every continuous functions admits antiderivative. In this note, we show how to prove existence of antiderivative of some discontinuous functions.

A typical example if the following function

f(x)=\begin{cases}\sin \frac 1x, & \text{ if } x \ne 0,\\ 0, & \text{ if }x=0.\end{cases}

By taking to different sequences x_k = 1/(2k\pi) and y_k = 1/(\pi/2 + 2k\pi) we immediately see that f is discontinuous at x=0. However, we will show that f admits F as its antiderivative.

To this end, we first consider the following function

G(x)=\begin{cases}x^2\cos \frac 1x, & \text{ if } x \ne 0,\\ 0, & \text{ if }x=0.\end{cases}

First we show that G is differentiable. Clearly whenever x \ne 0, we obtain

\displaystyle G'(x)=\sin \frac 1x + 2x \cos \frac 1x.


April 5, 2015

The set of continuous points of Riemann integrable functions is dense

Filed under: Uncategorized — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 15:03

In this note, we prove that the set of continuous point of Riemann integrable functions f on some interval [a,b] is dense in [a,b]. Our proof start with the following simple observation.

Lemma: Assume that P=\{t_0=a,...,t_n=b\} is a partition of [a,b] such that

\displaystyle U(f,P)-L(f,P)<\frac{b-a}m

for some m; then there exists some index i such that M_i-m_i < \frac 1m where M_i and m_i are the supremum and infimum of f over the subinterval [t_{i-1},t_i].

We now prove this result.

Proof of Lemma: By contradiction, we would have M_i-m_i \geqslant \frac 1m for all i; hence

\displaystyle \frac{b-a}m = \sum_{i} \frac{t_i-t_{i-1}}{m}\leqslant \sum_{i} \big(M_i-m_i\big)(t_i-t_{i-1})=U(f,P)-L(f,P),

which gives us a contradiction.

We now state our main result:

Theorem. Let f be Riemann integrable over [a,b]. Define

\displaystyle \Gamma = \{ x\in [a,b] : f \text{ is continuous at } x\}

Then \Gamma is dense in [a,b].


March 13, 2015

Comparing topologies of normed spaces: The equivalency of norms and the convergence of sequences

Filed under: Uncategorized — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 23:01

The aim of this note is to derive some connections between topologies of normed spaces in terms of the equivalency of norms and the convergence of sequences.

Topological space and its topology: First, we start with a topological space, call X. Its topology, say \mathcal T is the collection of subsets of X which satisfies certain conditions. In the literature, each member of the collection \mathcal T is called an open set.

Regarding to topologies we have the following basic facts:

  • Given two topologies \mathcal T_1 and \mathcal T_2 on X, we say that \mathcal T_1 is stronger (or finer or richer) than \mathcal T_2 if \mathcal T_2 \subset \mathcal T_1.
  • Given a sequence (x_n)_n in X, we say that x_n converges to x in topology \mathcal T of X if for any neighborhood V of x, there exists some large number N such that x_n \in V for all n \geqslant N. (Here by the neighborhood V of x we mean that there exists an open set O of X, i.e. O is a member of the topology \mathcal T, such that x \in O \subset V.)

The key ingredient to compare topologies is to make use of the identity map. In the following part, we state a result which shall be used frequently in this note.

Topologies under the identity map: Given two topologies \mathcal T_1 and \mathcal T_2 on a topological space X, we are interested in comparing \mathcal T_1 and \mathcal T_2 in terms of the identity map \rm id : (X, \mathcal T_1) \to (X, \mathcal T_2).

Lemma 1. The identity map \rm id : (X, \mathcal T_1) \to (X, \mathcal T_2) is continuous if and only if \mathcal T_1 is stronger than \mathcal T_2.


The proof is relatively easy. Indeed, if the map \rm id is continuous, then the preimage of any O_2 \in \mathcal T_2 is also a member of \mathcal T_1 which immediately implies that \mathcal T_1 includes \mathcal T_2.

Having Lemma 1 in hand, we now try to compare topologies using norms.


February 25, 2015

Continuous functions on subsets can be extended to the whole space: The Kirzbraun-Pucci theorem

Filed under: Uncategorized — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 1:22

Let f be a continuous function defined on a set E \subset \mathbb R^N with values in \mathbb R and with modulus of continuity

\displaystyle \omega_f (s) := \sup_{|x-y|\leqslant s,x,y\in E} |f(x) - f(y)| \quad s>0.

Obviously, the function s \mapsto \omega_f(s) is nonnegative and nondecreasing in [0,+\infty).

Our first assumption is that \omega_f is bounded from above in [0, \infty) by some increasing, affine function; that is to say there exists some a,b \in \mathbb R^+ such that

\displaystyle \omega_f (s) \leqslant a s +b \quad \forall s \geqslant 0.

Associated with \omega_f having the above first assumption is the concave modulus of continuity of f, i.e. some smallest concave function c_f lies above \omega_f. Such the function c_f can be easily constructed using the following

\displaystyle c_f (s) = \inf_\ell \{\ell(s) : \ell \text{ is affine and } \ell \geqslant \omega_f \text{ in } [0,+\infty)\}.

As can be easily seen, once \omega_f can be bounded from above by some affine function, the concave modulus of continuity of f exists and is well-defined.

By definition and the monotonicity of \omega_f, we obtain

\displaystyle |f(x)-f(y)| \leqslant \omega_f (|x-y|) \leqslant c_f (|x-y|).

In this note, we prove the following extension theorem.

Theorem (Kirzbraun-Pucci). Let f be a real-valued, uniformly continuous function on a set E \subset \mathbb R^N with modulus of continuity \omega_f satisfying the first assumption. There exists a continuous function \widetilde f defined on \mathbb R^N that coincides with f on E. Moreover, f and \widetilde f have the same concave modulus of continuity c_f and

\displaystyle \sup_{\mathbb R^N} \widetilde f = \sup_E f, \quad \inf_{\mathbb R^N} \widetilde f = \inf_E f.


February 22, 2015

The conditions (NN), (P), (NN+) and (P+) associated to the Paneitz operator for 3-manifolds

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 18:54

Of recent interest is the prescribed Q-curvature on closed Riemannian manifolds since it involves high-order differential operators.

In a previous post, I have talked about prescribed Q-curvature on 4-manifolds. Recall that for 4-manifolds, this question is equivalent to finding a conformal metric \widetilde g =e^{2u}g for which the Q-curvature of \widetilde g equals the prescribed function \widetilde Q? That is to solving

\displaystyle P_gu+2Q_g=2\widetilde Q e^{4u},

where for any g, the so-called Paneitz operator P_g acts on a smooth function u on M via

\displaystyle {P_g}(u) = \Delta _g^2u - {\rm div}\left( {\frac{2}{3}{R_g} - 2{\rm Ric}_g} \right)du

which plays a similar role as the Laplace operator in dimension two and the Q-curvature of \widetilde g is given as follows

\displaystyle Q_g=-\frac{1}{12}(\Delta\text{Scal}_g -\text{Scal}_g^2 +3|{\rm Ric}_g|^2).

Sometimes, if we denote by \delta the negative divergence, i.e. \delta = - {\rm div}, we obtain the following formula

\displaystyle {P_g}(u) = \Delta _g^2u + \delta \left( {\frac{2}{3}{R_g} - 2{\rm Ric}_g} \right)du.

Generically, for n-manifolds, we obtain

\displaystyle Q_g=-\frac{1}{2(n-1)} \Big(\Delta\text{Scal}_g - \frac{n^3-4n^2+16n-16}{4(n-1)(n-2)^2} \text{Scal}_g^2+\frac{4(n-1)}{(n-2)^2} |{\rm Ric}_g|^2 \Big)


\displaystyle {P_g}(u) = \Delta _g^2u + {\rm div}\left( { a_n {R_g} + b_n {\rm Ric}_g} \right)du + \frac{n-4}{2} Q_g u,

where a_n = -((n-2)^2+4)/2(n-1)(n-2) and b_n =4/(n-2).


January 24, 2015

Reversed Gronwall-Bellman’s inequality

Filed under: Uncategorized — Tags: — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 23:01

In mathematics, Gronwall’s inequality (also called Grönwall’s lemma, Gronwall’s lemma or Gronwall–Bellman inequality) allows one to bound a function that is known to satisfy a certain differential or integral inequality by the solution of the corresponding differential or integral equation. The differential form was proven by Grönwall in 1919. The integral form was proven by Richard Bellman in 1943. A nonlinear generalization of the Gronwall–Bellman inequality is known as Bihari’s inequality.

First, we consider the Gronwall inequality.

Type 1. Bounds by integrals based on lower bound a.

Let \beta and u be real-valued continuous functions defined on [a,b]. If u is differentiable in (a,b) and satisfies the differential inequality

\displaystyle u'(t) \leqslant \beta(t) u(t),

then u is bounded by the solution of the corresponding differential equation y'(t) = \beta (t)y(t), that is to say

\displaystyle \boxed{u(t) \leqslant u(a) \exp\biggl(\int_a^t \beta(s) ds\biggr)}

for all t \in [a,b].


January 7, 2015

The failure of compact Rellich-Kondrachov embedding: Unbounded domains and critical exponents

Filed under: Uncategorized — Ngô Quốc Anh @ 19:49

In a very old entry, I talked about an extension of Rellich-Kondrachov theorem for embeddings between Sobolev spaces. For the sake of convenience, here is the statement of this extension:

Theorem (Extension of Rellich-Kondrachov for bounded domains). Let \Omega \subset \mathbb R^n be an open, bounded Lipschitz domain, and let  1 \leqslant p \leqslant mn. Set

\displaystyle p^\star := \frac{np}{n - mp}.

Then we have

\displaystyle W^{j+m, p} (\Omega) \hookrightarrow W^{j, q} (\Omega) for  1 \leqslant q \leqslant p^\star


\displaystyle W^{j+m, p} (\Omega) \hookrightarrow \hookrightarrow W^{j,q} (\Omega) for  1 \leqslant q < p^\star.

Clearly, when q=p^\star=\frac{np}{n - mp}, the above embedding is not compact, in general. In this context, we call the failure of compact Rellich-Kondrachov embedding due to critical exponents.

There is an other example of the failure of compact Rellich-Kondrachov embedding which is basically due to the unbounded domains. In this entry, we address counter-examples for these two lacks of compactness.


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