In mathematics, the Korteweg–de Vries equation (KdV equation for short) is a mathematical model of waves on shallow water surfaces. It is particularly famous as the prototypical example of an exactly solvable model, that is, a non-linear partial differential equation whose solutions can be exactly and precisely specified. The solutions in turn include prototypical examples of solitons. KdV can be solved by means of the inverse scattering transform. The mathematical theory behind the KdV equation is rich and interesting, and, in the broad sense, is a topic of active mathematical research. The equation is named for Diederik Korteweg and Gustav de Vries who studied it in (Korteweg & de Vries 1895), though the equation first appears in (Boussinesq 1877, p. 360).