Let us consider a very simple class of schemes solving the convection equations entitled the upwind schemes. Precisely, let us consider
together with the following initial data
It is well-known that the above problem has a unique solution given by , which is a right traveling wave of speed .
Since the upwind schemes are well-known and appear in most of numerical analysis’s textbooks, what I am trying to do here is to give some basic ideas together with their motivation.
First of all, the original upwind schemes are just explicit one-step schemes. Upwind schemes use an adaptive or solution-sensitive finite difference stencil to numerically simulate more properly the direction of propagation of information in a flow field. The upwind schemes attempt to discretize hyperbolic partial differential equations by using differencing biased in the direction determined by the sign of the characteristic speeds. Historically, the origin of upwind methods can be traced back to the work of Courant, Isaacson, and Reeves who proposed the CIR method.
Discretization. Like the finite difference methods, we need to use a a grid with points defined by
for some spatial grid size and time step .
As we saw in this entry, the characteristics play an important role and so we make a distinction between the cases and .
The case . Let us consider the case when .
Basic idea. The key point here is to obtain a good approximation to time and spatial derivatives. As a explicit scheme, for the time derivative , we use the forward difference approximation. To be exact, we use
Since solutions to advection Equations are travelling waves, we have
It follows from that
The full picture of this is shown above where the dotted line is the characteristic through the point facing back to the initial line . As we are going to approximate
and this scheme is just one-step, we may think about forward or backward in space.
If we use the forward in space scheme, we then have
It is clear to see that the information of is propagated to . However, we need to use the information of in order to evaluate . Therefore this scheme is implicit. Therefore we need to use the backward in space scheme, precisely
Adding all gives
This scheme is called the upwind scheme because it uses the numerical solution at the grid point , which lies upwind of .
Stability. The stability of this scheme is also well-know. In fact, one can rewrite the scheme as follows
where is the Courant number given by
The stability result says that the condition yields the stability condition of the upwind scheme. In fact, once this condition is fulfilled, we have the following observation
That means the information from and used to calculate is enough.
The case . Now when , the approximation used to evaluate time derivative doesn’t change. However, regarding to spatial derivative, we need to use the forward in space scheme. Thus the scheme now reads as
This scheme is again first order consistent in and , since we used one-sided differences for the derivatives.
Second-order upwind scheme. The spatial accuracy of the first-order upwind scheme can be improved by choosing a more accurate finite difference stencil for the approximation of spatial derivative. For the second-order upwind scheme
If , we use
while , we use
This scheme is less diffusive compared to the first-order accurate scheme.
Third-order upwind scheme. For the third-order upwind scheme:
If , we use
while , we use
This scheme is less diffusive compared to the second-order accurate scheme. However, it is known to introduce slight dispersive errors in the region where the gradient is high.
- R. M. M. Mattheij et al., Partial Differential Equations: Modeling, Analysis, Computation, SIAM.