Ngô Quốc Anh

August 29, 2009

On a polynomials of degree n, having all its zeros in the unit dis

I found a very useful inequality involving a polynomials of degree $n$, having all its zeros in the unit disk from the following paper, doi:10.1016/j.jmaa.2009.07.049, published in J. Math. Anal. Appl.

Statement. If $P(z)$ is a polynomial of degree $n$, having all its zeros in the disk $|z| \leq 1$, then $\left| {zP'(z)} \right| \geq \displaystyle\frac{n} {2}\left| {P(z)} \right|$

for $|z|=1$.

Proof. Since all the zeros of $P(z)$ lie in $latex|z| \leq 1$. Hence if $z_1, z_2,...,z_n$ are the zeros of $P(z)$, then $|z_j| \leq 1$ for all $j =1,2,...,n$. Clearly, $\displaystyle\Re \frac{{{e^{i\theta }}P'\left( {{e^{i\theta }}} \right)}}{{P\left( {{e^{i\theta }}} \right)}} = \sum\limits_{j = 1}^n {\Re \frac{{{e^{i\theta }}}}{{{e^{i\theta }} - {z_j}}}} ,$

for every point $e^{i\theta}$, $0 \leq \theta < 2 \pi$ which is not a zero of $P(z)$. Note that $\displaystyle\sum\limits_{j = 1}^n {\Re \frac{e^{i\theta }}{e^{i\theta } - z_j}}\geq\sum\limits_{j = 1}^n{\frac{1}{2}}=\frac{n}{2}.$

This implies $\displaystyle\left| {\frac{{{e^{i\theta }}P'\left( {{e^{i\theta }}} \right)}}{{P\left( {{e^{i\theta }}} \right)}}} \right| \geq \Re \frac{{{e^{i\theta }}P'\left( {{e^{i\theta }}} \right)}}{{P\left( {{e^{i\theta }}} \right)}} \geq \frac{n}{2},$

for every point $e^{i \pi}$, $0 \leq \theta < 2\pi$. Hence $\left| {zP'(z)} \right| \geq \displaystyle \frac{n}{2}\left| {P(z)} \right|$

for $|z|=1$ and this completes the proof.